Friday, February 23, 2018

I Can't See the Future





To be honest, I could never completely slog my way through a Hemingway novel, but I've always chuckled at the passage in The Sun Also Rises: “How did you go bankrupt?” Answer: “Two ways, Gradually, then suddenly.” Many nursery companies went under in the past decade, but I wonder how many could have been saved with better leadership. The large nursery next door flopped, the huge nursery where I first worked failed, and even the giant Monrovia Nursery had to bail out by selling their souls to the Lowe's box store. For many it must have seemed like a bad dream where you have an urgent purpose but you are paralyzed and cannot get going. The neighbor kept producing plants on the one end, and then burned crop after crop on the other...until the money ran out. Smoke from smoldering soil laced with fertilizer and pesticides billowed over our valley for a couple of years, and now the new ownership is doing the same thing.



























Cornus kousa 'Summer Fun'


At Buchholz Nursery we're content with our modest enterprise and at least we turn a profit. But I question our long-term viability every time we propagate. There is no magic formula about what to produce and how many, and I rely on gut instincts like I always have. How many Cornus kousa 'Summer Fun' should we grow? Well, fortunately we have a market at the one-year graft size, so we'll sell some young plants this summer hopefully. Eventually a row of 30 will go into the field because the trunk calipers develop better in the ground than in a container. Five-to-seven years later they will be dug and put into wood boxes, and these will sit at the nursery for a full year to recover from the digging before they are sold. So, let's see, it might be year 2025 before I get a return on my investment, and that's if all goes well.

Picea abies 'Malena'


This past week we finished grafting and sticking cuttings for the winter season, so let's take a look at  what was propagated. A cute “Norway spruce,” Picea abies 'Malena' was grafted low onto Picea abies rootstock, but we also planted a couple hundred cuttings, and the cutting grown plants make for a great addition to our cutie (QT) pot program. 'Malena' grows about an inch a year on its own roots so it stays low and dense and it takes about six years to fill a one-gallon pot. That's not highly profitable, but then very little effort is required from the nurseryman. Our oldest plant is in full sun in the Display Garden, and it never suffers like some of the other dwarf Norways, even when we get to 106 degrees with no humidity. 'Malena' originated as a witch's broom mutation in Switzerland in the 1980's.




























Picea glauca 'Pixie Dust'


Picea glauca 'Pixie Dust' is a fun plant, and likewise we root cuttings as well as graft low and on standards. Any way presented it is a special addition to a trough or rock garden. As a miniature you can expect it to grow from one to four inches per year, and I find it best to keep my stock plants in a greenhouse so that I'll be rewarded with the four inches per year. What is special about the little Alberta spruce is its second flush of growth in summer that is cream yellow, a “dusting” (by pixies?) that contrasts with the older green shoots. I grew a group in our containers in full sun and the yellow growth help up fairly well, nevertheless I think that PM shade would be the best site in most gardens to keep the foliage looking fresh. 'Pixie Dust' originated at Iseli Nursery in the 1990's and it was selected as one of two “Conifers of the Year” in 2006.

Picea orientalis 'Tom Thumb'

Picea orientalis 'Tom Thumb'


Another attractive miniature is Picea orientalis 'Tom Thumb'. We graft it onto Picea abies seedlings, and unlike the above two conifers I've never had success rooting the orientalis species (I would love to hear if someone else has). 'Tom Thumb' is the name often encountered in the trade while some name it 'Tom Thumb Gold'. Whichever way, make no mistake, for the plant is gold and there doesn't exist a green version. And no wonder for it originated as a witch's broom mutation on the golden Picea orientalis 'Skylands', and was discovered in the 1980's by Joel Spingam of New York state. 'Tom Thumb' is another miniature, growing one-to-two inches per year, and again I keep my stock in the greenhouse to force the longer growth. In Oregon it will burn in full sun, but in deep shade the foliage will be greenish, so its best to site similar to the 'Pixie Dust'.

Picea pungens 'Maigold'
Picea pungens 'Gebelle's Golden Spring'




























Picea pungens 'Spring Blast'
Picea pungens 'Spring Ghost'




























There are a few cultivars of “Colorado spruce,” Picea pungens, that feature new growth in April-May that are colored delightfully in contrast with the older foliage. 'Maigold' (Maygold) from Europe and 'Gebelle's Golden Spring' from Ohio are two very worthy conifers with a cream-yellow flush. The fun lasts for about six weeks before the bright needles begin to fade, and at that point you have a regular looking blue-green Colorado spruce again. The new growth on 'Spring Blast' is more white, while the old foliage is more blue than the previous two cultivars. All of these three are an improvement over my original bi-colored 'Spring Ghost' which burns mercilessly. One wag dubbed it: “Spring Ghost, summer toast,” even though my first tree in the Display Garden (at 35 years of age) looks absolutely spectacular in May before it gets hot.

Tsuga mertensiana 'Bump's Blue'
Tsuga mertensiana 'Powder Blue'





























My favorite conifer might be Tsuga mertensiana, the “Mountain hemlock” from the mountains of western North America. I favor it primarily because I am most happy when I am away from work and everybody with their problems and I can hike into the thin air where the hemlock hovers on the slopes of our Cascade Mountains. Foliage is blue-gray, but in July light-blue new growth sparkles diamond-like on the tree. T. mertensiana was named for Karl Heinrich Mertens (1796-1830), a German botanist who explored the coast of America aboard a Russian ship. Some question if T. mertensiana should be included in the Tsuga genus because it is very different form the rest with its radially arranged needles and relatively large Picea-like pendant cones. It went from being classified as Pinus mertensiana to Hesperopeuce mertensiana before being lumped into the Tsugas. In any case we graft some of the most blue cultivars onto seedling T. mertensiana – it's not compatible with the other Tsugas – and it's a long process to get the slow-growing conifer to a salable size. 'Bump's Blue' and 'Powder Blue' are Buchholz introductions, while 'Blue Star' was selected in 1965 by L. Konijn from The Netherlands. 'Elizabeth' is a spreading form, growing twice as wide as tall, and was discovered on Mt. Rainier by Elsie Fry who named it for her daughter. Cultivars of T. mertensiana are rare at the garden centers because they are slow-growing and stock trees tend to produce less-than-vigorous scion shoots. Even the rootstock is slow, and ours are four-to-five years old when we are able to graft.

Abies koreana 'Alpine Star'


I enjoy producing Abies grafts because our percentages are usually very high, and besides I like their smell. Can I detect which species is being cut by smell alone? Probably not with accuracy, but almost. As with Mountain hemlock I like the “true firs” because most species originate at the higher elevations. One favorite dwarf is Abies koreana 'Alpine Star'. It was aptly named because its white buds sparkle against the dark green foliage. This tiny gem was selected in Scotland and it is sometimes named 'Alpin Star'.

Abies lasiocarpa 'Hurricane Blue'
Abies lasiocarpa 'Glacier Blue'




























Abies koreana x lasiocarpa


Abies lasiocarpa is the “sub-alpine fir,” and it is native to western North America and the Rockies in regions that also contain the mountain hemlock. The specific name refers to the hairy cone scales, but the distinguishing characteristic is the narrow crown. The variety arizonica is the “Corkbark fir” from Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona, but I've never seen it in the wild to know if the crown is also spire-like. It is known for much more blue foliage, so I assume that the various upright pyramidal cultivars with intense blue needles are var. arizonica. 'Hurricane Blue' and 'Glacier Blue' are especially attractive, but without their labels I probably couldn't tell one apart from the other. Also we grow a few hybrids with Abies koreana crossed with Abies lasiocarpa, and those are of German origin. I think the point of the hybrid is that A. koreana is considered easier to grow than straight A. lasiocarpa. In any case the hybrid shows characteristics of both parents, and displays soft gray-blue needles with silver undersides.

Abies koreana 'Vengels'


I grew Abies koreana 'Vengels' from scions that were sent to me, but I had never seen an older specimen or knew why it was selected. I observed that it was relatively slow-growing and upright but not a dwarf. One spring day I walked past my six-year-old trees and was stunned by the beautiful, but odd cones, and instantly I knew why it was a selected cultivar. The cones were more long and narrow than the type with pointy scales. When my oldest trees were ten years old I put them up for sale since I had younger stock in the pipeline. They sold on day one, then I completely regretted parting with them. Sometimes capitalism engulfs me and I make decisions I wished I hadn't. Anyway if you ever see 'Vengels' for sale – from me or anyone – you are advised to buy the wonderful curiosity.




























Hamamelis x intermedia 'Strawberries and Cream'


We grafted our Hamamelis a couple of weeks ago, when most of our cultivars were in flower. The blossoms appear on the older branches so they don't affect the newer shoots that we use for scionwood. Generally the “witch hazels” are not strong sellers for me – not like with Acer, Cornus, Ginkgo etc. – because they flower so early, before we ship most of our specimen plants. If they're not in bloom they sit at the garden center looking green and boring, and their customers bypass them for something more exciting. So each fall I order 300 Hamamelis virginiana rootstocks in pots at a graftable size, then I have my choice of about twenty cultivars that I could graft. This year half of them were used for H. x intermedia 'Strawberries and Cream' because it is a newer cultivar (for me) and besides I like the name. Each flower consists of four ribbon-like yellow petals that are colored soft red at their base, a fun combination. The garden centers needn't worry if they don't sell in spring or summer because the brilliant butter-yellow autumn foliage is spectacular as well.

Hamamelis x intermedia 'Orange Peel' at Wisley

Hamamelis intermedia 'Orange Peel'




























Hamamelis intermedia 'Orange Peel'



Another Hamamelis that we grafted is H x. intermedia 'Orange Peel', and once again I like the name. I first saw it at Wisley in England one October, and the green leaves were beginning to color orange. I left the path and stepped into the bed to take a close-up photo...and just then a gardener rounded the corner with his rake and wheelbarrow. He didn't say anything, but I sure would have if I was the gardener! Anyway I've grown 'Orange Peel' for about ten years, and besides the lovely fall color the February flowers are a strong orange as well. This is one of many witch hazels developed at the Arboretum Kalmthout in Belgium.




























Betula ermanii 'Fincham Cream'


Brian Humphrey
We grafted a few Betula costata 'Fincham Cream', or so said the label in the Flora Wonder Arboretum. According to Paul Bartlett of Stone Lane Gardens in England the costata species has no cultivars, and all of the cultivars previously placed in costata are in fact Betula ermanii. So, another label to change. I used to be a grower of birches but could never find a good market for them, and this year's propagation is the first time in 15 years. Who knows, maybe my customers will live it up a little and give this nice cultivar a chance. I received my start of 'Fincham Cream' a long time ago, back when I was young. Now my hair is as white as the birch's bark. Bartlett continues, “['Fincham Cream'] from the late Maurice Mason's arboretum at Talbot Manor, Fincham. A batch of seedlings were grown at Brentry/Hillier arboretum and five of these trees were sent by Harold Hillier to Maurice Mason as Betula costata. The best one was selected by Brian Humphrey and called 'Fincham Cream'. Very attractive pale cream smooth bark and superb gold autumn colour.” Brian Humphrey is the Englishman who sent me scions, and until today I didn't know that he also selected the birch. I really should buy the Betula monograph The Genus Betula (2013) by Ashburner and McAllister even though it is horribly expensive.

Betula utilis in the Himalaya

Betula utilis 'Forest Blush'


Next to the 'Fincham Cream' in the Betula section at Flora Farm is Betula utilis 'Forest Blush', also selected and named by Brian Humphrey for its “smooth white bark with a hint of blush-pink. From seed collected by George Forrest in Yunnan, China.” (Hillier). I didn't know that Mr. Humphrey was old enough to be selecting birch seedlings collected by George Forrest. Botanist David Don named the utilis species which means “useful,” but prior to that John Lindley named it B. bhojpattra, its Sanskrit name. It is native to the Himalaya up to 14,000', and one of its “uses” was for writing on the bark Sanskrit scriptures and texts in ancient times. Bhojpattra is derived from Sanskrit bhurja which shares a similarity to other Indo-European words that lead to the common name of “birch.”



























Betula utilis var. jacquemontii 'Jermyns'


The final birch we grafted is B. utilis var. jacquemontii 'Jermyns' which received an Award of Garden Merit. It features attractive bark like the previous two mentioned, but is also famous for its long catkins. According to Hillier, “A very vigorous, medium-sized, broadly-conical tree; the very fine white bark is retained into maturity. Catkins long and showy, up to 17 cm. Selected at Hillier Nurseries before 1960 from plants of var. jacquemontii received from the Netherlands via Belgium.” Who knows if I am wasting my time by propagating these three Betula, but one can do worse than be a swinger...er seller of birches.

Sorbus commixta
Sorbus commixta graft



























Embley Park House


Florence Nightingale
I was pleased to receive some scions of Sorbus commixta, a species from Japan, Sakhalin Island and the Korean peninsula. Wait! Did I see this species on TV behind the ski run at the Olympics? All of the better British gardens contain S. commixta which is famous for its orange-to-red autumn color. One cultivar I received is 'Embley', “A superb small tree, with its leaves consistently glowing red in autumn, colouring generally later and remaining on the branches longer. Large, heavy branches of glistening orange-red fruits. Originated at Embley Park in Hampshire before 1970. AM 1971.” (Hillier). Embley Park was the family home of Florence Nightingale from 1825 until her death in 1910, and where “the Lady with the Lamp” claimed she had received her divine calling from God. Another Sorbus grafted was 'Eastern Promise', a hybrid of S. commixta 'Embley' x S. vilmorinii, the latter a species from China introduced by the Abbe Delavay in 1889. Hillier calls S. vilmorinii, “A charming species suitable for a small garden. AM 1916.”

Juana grafting


Again I boast of my talented grafter Juana, and not only that, but she also led the rooted cutting crew. This year we propagated many hundreds of species and cultivars, but nothing – no matter how popular today – in huge numbers. In the past “good times” the owner of the neighboring nursery pitied me for my conservative, collector-approach to horticulture. In those days he made more money than I, but then he lost it all as his market crashed. I'm not smugly confident though, and probably I worry about my future more than any other nursery owner.

Friday, February 16, 2018

Conifer Blue


Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Splitrock'

Pinus mugo 'Mr. Wood'

Abies veitchii 'Glauca'

Ginkgo biloba 'Blue Cloud'


John Lindley
Imagine the botanists of yore sitting in their studies at their universities or botanical gardens: they would be happy to know the study of botany continues in the 21st century, in fact it is more wonderfully revealing than ever. But what about horticulture? They must have known that before them the ancient cultures had intervened with nature to produce better olives, apples and grains. Could they have imagined that one day normally green species would have horticulturists discover and promote blue variants? Do you think that Siebold and Zuccarini, two German botanists who first described Chamaecyparis obtusa, could predict that we would be planting a blue hinoki like 'Splitrock'? I'll bet that Antonio Turra (1730-1796), the Italian botanist who first described Pinus mugo, would never have guessed that conifer aficionados would one day covet the miniature blue 'Mr. Wood'. When John Gould Veitch introduced the green Abies veitchii from Japan, it was first described by the English botanist John Lindley. Now I have the silver-blue 'Glauca' in my collection. And when Linnaeus first described Ginkgo biloba in his publications he certainly could not have foreseen the Buchholz Nursery introduction of 'Blue Cloud', allegedly.



Everyone admires blue, maybe because we react happily to blue skies. In polls in both Europe and America blue is considered peoples' favorite color. Even though the Japanese flag is red and white, my wife Haruko also supposes that blue is the favorite color in Japan. I don't know about ancient Greece, though, for they classified colors by whether they were light or dark and not by their hue. Kyaneos for “dark blue” could also be used for dark green, black or brown. “Light blue” or glaukos, could also mean light green, gray or yellow.

Acer japonicum 'Ao jutan'
Pinus parviflora 'Aoi'





























Haruko tried to explain for me again (10th time) how the Japanese word ao can be used for both green and blue, and that aoi is an adjective – or was it the noun? All I know is that the maple Acer japonicum 'Ao jutan' has green leaves and that Pinus parviflora 'Aoi' is a blue-needled pine. I get agitated by her vague language, or so it seems to me, but it's not worth a marital fight, and I have to accept that her explanation is beyond me. Anyway, blue is a fun color, so let's have a look at some blue conifers.

Picea pungens 'The Blues'


I have grown Picea pungens 'The Blues' for quite a few years and I think it has one of the best cultivar names in horticulture. It originated at Stanley & Sons Nursery, Oregon as a more-weeping and silver-blue mutation on the old Picea pungens 'Glauca Pendula'. Larry Stanley was/is a keen plantsman and when he noticed the mutation he thought he might have something wonderful; in a large or more plebian nursery the potential might have been overlooked. The photo above is at Stanley's Nursery and I take it to be the original, or one of the original grafts from the mutation. It is grown by the thousands now, but sadly Stanley doesn't get a dime whenever one is sold. 'The Blues' has a stout leader and you could probably grow it to a considerable height, but I warn you that if you turn your back on it for even a short time the leader will begin to wander sideways and you cannot resurrect it.

Cedrus deodara 'Feelin' Blue'


Another weeper with a great name is Cedrus deodara 'Feelin' Blue', but its color is more gray-blue than the shiner 'The Blues'. Monrovia Nursery describes it as “the lowest of the dwarf cedars...” but it is not* and they should get out more. It can certainly be grown low but we prefer to stake ours into small upright weeping trees, and in 10 years we can achieve about 8' in height when grafted onto C. deodara rootstock. The growth rate is slower if propagated on its own roots. I got my start of 'Feelin' Blue' from Kools Nursery in Holland, and no wonder because it was discovered (seedling origin) in Boskoop, Holland in the 1980's. The C. deodara species is native to the western Himalaya and I have seen old specimens in northern India at about 10,000'. The botanical name is derived from the Sanskrit devadaru which combines deva for “god” and daru for “wood” or “tree.” C. deodara is the national tree of Pakistan, but the most cold-hardy** selections come from the Paktia Province in Afghanistan.

Cedrus deodara 'Vaneta'


*C. deodara 'Vaneta' is much more dwarf and low. So is C. libani 'Whitehouse WB'.

**I have grown some of these: 'Karl Fuchs', 'Polar Winter', 'Eiswinter' and others that are hardy from -15 F to -22 F, but I would considered 'Feelin' Blue' to be no more hardy than -10 degrees F.

Juniperus horizontalis 'Icee Blue'


There are at least two conifer cultivars named 'Icee Blue': one is a Podocarpus elongatus and the other a Juniperus horizontalis. I don't know which was named first, but it was bad form to have likewise named the second one. The J. horizontalis species is native to northeastern North America where it can be found growing in rocky soil and over cliffs. 'Icee Blue' forms a low-growing dense mat that stays less than a few inches tall, but it can be problematic in Oregon winters where the constant rain can cause shoot die-back. Maybe the problem is my own, for I have happy soil with plenty of irrigation, and perhaps my long new growth is too soft to withstand the winter.

 
Podocarpus elongatus 'Icee Blue'
 
Podocarpus elongatus is commonly known as the “Breede River yellowwood” from South Africa which grows into a multibranched bush, and it is the national tree of that country. The specific name is due to relatively elongated leaves in comparison to many other Podocarpus.* The type features blue-gray leaves but 'Icee Blue' is much deeper in color. It should be grown in full sun for best color, but unfortunately is only hardy to USDA zone 9 (20 degrees F).



























Podocarpus henkelii


*P. henkelii has much longer leaves, but it wasn't discovered until P. elongatus was already named. Oops.

Cupressus arizonica var. glabra 'Blue Ice'


I don't know – or really want to know – the difference between Cupressus arizonica and C. arizonica var. glabra, but in the Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs (2014) it states that the var. glabra is more common in cultivation. A cultivar with stunning blue foliage is 'Blue Ice' which grows into a small conical tree. According to Hillier it originated in New Zealand about 1984. Shortly thereafter the now bankrupt firm of Duncan & Davies sent samples of 'Blue Ice' and Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Fernspray Gold' to the large wholesale nursery where I toiled. My employer showed the samples to me, but stated, “What am I going to do with these?” His nursery was frankly a boring place with mugo pines, Alberta spruce and Rhododendrons by the many thousands. I found the two conifers to be fascinating and I offered to buy them. I was starting my own nursery then so he gave them to me gratis, and after a few years I had both in production, probably the first company in North America to offer them. 'Blue Ice' is fast growing and I took a 6' specimen to our Farwest Nursery Show where it was an instant hit. At one point we propagated about 5,000 grafts and sold them as lining-out-stock...which is funny because we don't produce even one now. The problem is that the plants weren't hardy enough for most of my liner customers' customers. When they were dug from the field the stress caused them to produce unsightly gray male pollen, and if they were grown in containers they would flop around and require a stake. On their own roots – which I was never very successful at – they grow thin and feeble. Worst of all the grafted tops would grow too fast in the field and the roots (on Cupressus arizonica) couldn't keep up, so after a rainy windstorm the field of 'Blue Ice' would all be leaning at a 45 degree angle. We had about a 12-year run with it, but now nobody even asks.

Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Baby Blue Ice'

You get it by now that the word “ice” or “icee” sounds catchy with the word “blue,” and another conifer is Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Baby Blue Ice'*, which I admit is a fun name to say. It forms a compact pyramid grown either in a container or in the ground, and my oldest specimen (above) is now 6 or 7' tall. The pisifera species (Latin for “pea bearing” due to the size and shape of the seed cone) strikes readily from cuttings at just about any time of the year. The various cultivars are hardy to -30 degrees F and are relatively problem free; my only trouble is a wet snow that makes me want to dump my outside plants, but by the following summer they look good and compact again. 'Baby Blue Ice' was discovered by Stanley & Sons Nursery, the same company that found Picea pungens 'The Blues', in 1998 as a dwarf mutation on C.p. 'Baby Blue', the latter a cultivar nobody grows any more.

Picea pungens 'Baby Blue Eyes'


*Baby Blue Ice is a cute name. There also exists a 'Baby Blue Eyes' for a Picea pungens cultivar, and I grow one in the Flora Wonder Arboretum.

Picea engelmannii 'Blue Magoo'


When I began my nursery years ago I grew a lot of conifers from seed. The resulting seedlings might yield something interesting, but if they didn't you could either throw them away or perhaps use them as rootstock (which I still do with Japanese maples). In the mid 1980's I germinated a few hundred Picea engelmannii, and three years later I set aside about five of them that were the most blue. These were grown in the field, and one became my favorite, so I propagated and named it 'Blue Magoo'. The branches did not weep at all, but the new shoots drooped in spring giving the tree a graceful appearance. I sold a fair number because others agreed, and the western North American species is hardy and relatively easy to grow. Well – easy – except the species is prone (along with Picea pungens) to attack by a dreaded moth which lays eggs in the terminal leaders, and as the larvae develop they kill the spruce tops. Dwarf and miniature cultivars of P. engelmannii are not targets for the moth for they prefer to infest the succulent leader at the top of taller trees. Rather than a battle with the creatures with chemical control, I just don't grow them anymore. Buchholz Nursery is too small and diverse with affected trees in many locations, so preventative measures are inconvenient and costly. You win some, you lose some.





















Picea pungens 'Blue Pearl'


Picea pungens 'Pali'























Picea pungens 'Herman Naue'


Picea pungens 'Procumbens'


I asked Seth what was his favorite blue conifer and he responded Picea pungens 'Margarite'. Yep, that's a good one, but I don't have a photo to prove it. But there has been a long debate about what is the “best” Colorado blue spruce...which can't be determined until we all agree on what best means. As I mentioned with Picea engelmannii cultivars, I now steer clear of the large-growing pyramidal cultivars such as 'Hoopsii' which was very popular at the beginning of my career. 'Thompsen' (from Denmark) was just as silver-blue but it too was prone to moth attack. Even the more-dwarf and compact 'Sester's Dwarf' suffered some damage, and there's nothing worse than a formal pyramidal tree without its top. On account of that we grow the miniatures like 'Blue Pearl' and 'Pali' Others that are slow-growing – but not “miniature” – include 'Early Cones', 'Ruby Teardrops' and 'Herman Naue'. These cuties produce erect purple cones in the spring, and as summer progresses the cones turn blonde-brown and dangle downward. None of these coners are very profitable for the nurseryman, but then they are easy to sell. Two clones that creep low and at a faster rate include 'Procumbens' and 'Dietz Prostrate', and they are very effective when planted in front of upright golden conifers like Pinus sylvestris 'Gold Medal'.

Juniperus deppeana 'Ohmy Blue'


Juniperus deppeana is the “Alligator bark juniper,” a species from dry areas in central and northern Mexico...up to Arizona, Texas and New Mexico. Other than the interesting checkerbark I find the species to be mostly ugly. Botanists still haggle if there are five distinct varieties: var. deppeana, var. robusta, var. sperryi, var. zacatecensis – the four of which don't interest me. The fifth variety is pachyphlaea and it is known for stunning blue foliage with white resin spots. Thirty years ago I was visiting the garden of the late Dr. Bump of Forest Grove, Oregon, and he led me to a seedling tree of J. d. var. p. I uttered “My God, that's blue.” He invited me to take cuttings if I wanted, and I did. To keep track of it I had to give it a name, and I couldn't call it 'My God That's Blue' so I chose 'Ohmy Blue'. It wouldn't root for me, but I did graft a few onto Juniperus scopulorum 'Skyrocket'. Over the years the grafts onto 'Skyrocket' were not usually successful, besides sales were weak because I was apparently charging too much for a mere juniper. I haven't propagated it in ten years but I do keep a nice specimen in the collection. The specific name deppeana honors Ferdinand Deppe (? - 1861), a German botanist who had given the species a name previously used for another species; which is not allowed so it was changed to deppeana. The variety name pachyphlaea is from Greek pachy for “thick, dense, large, massive,” and I don't know phlaea unless it refers to the bark.

Pinus cembra 'Blue Mound'


Pinus cembra 'Blue Mound' is a dwarf dense tree, and the finder of it – I forget who he was – told me that the original seedling did indeed grow into a “mound” shape. He conceded though, that despite its name all grafted propagules will eventually assume a pyramidal shape. This most garden-worthy “Swiss stone pine” can eventually reach 10' in height – mine is already 8' tall at 30 years old. Horticulture is replete with name tags – like the Podocarpus elongata that I mentioned earlier – that can seem quite inappropriate down the road.

Ephedra equisitina 'Blue Stem'


Even people who are familiar with horticulture are surprised to hear that the Ginkgo genus is (somewhat) classified as a conifer, or at least in the Hillier Manual it is listed with the conifers. Even more strange, I think, is when I first discovered the Ephedra genus included with conifers in Krussmann's Manual of Cultivated Conifers, a comprehensive reference book that I began using at the beginning of my career. Hillier doesn't go so far, and Ephedra in the Ephedraceae family is included in the Trees and Shrubs section. Hillier concedes, however, that Ephedra is, "A genus of great botanical interest, providing a link between flowering plants and conifers." Conifers "flower" too of course, but theirs are not considered true flowers....another example of a gray area in botanical classification. Anyway, I doubt that either Krussmann or Hillier ever encountered E. equisitina 'Blue Stem', whether we call it a conifer or not. Our website describes it as "An interesting conifer-related shrub with slender rush-like powder blue stems. Small orange-red berries sparkle delightfully in the blue foliage. Wonderful addition to a rock garden."


The adjective wonderful...again. Regular readers of the blog know that I use, and probably overuse the word. But I am sincere every time. Blue is wonderful, and the color is no stranger to the Flora Wonder Blog.